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I Do not flatter myself that I have avoided all errors in the following pages. That, in a volume like the present, containing such a vast multitude of statements of fact, was nearly impossible.

dabid I have been admonished by some of my friends against the retention of certain expressions which occur with regard to SCIENCE and scientific men, lucad well as against the theological temper of some of the early chapters. With respect to the first, I do not believe that any candid person will suspect me of an unfriendly feeling towards Science, or of any want of appreciation of its great achievements and the lofty position which it so justly occupies.

A scientific fact is as much a part of the TRUTH vienf a verse of Scripture, and every rightly-constituted mind must welcome the discoveries of scientific men as the Biblical student would welcome a corrected text of the Books of Chronicles veine the recovery of the original Ignatian epistles.

It is not Science, but scientific theories hastily formed and inconsiderately prornulged, that I venture to rebuke; sfjeczaatlion, it appears to me, is hardly within the sphere of Science, and when the theologian or the scientist undertakes to go one step beyond the RECORD, in the one case and in the other we have the right to call him back.


In the past the Theologians have 9. With regard to the references to Christianity and the Bible in some of the earlier chapters, I thought them pertinent to any discussion of the origin of man, involving, as the Bible does, not only a professed revelation onthe subject, but also historical statements of great antiquity. There is a certain want of ingenuousness among many literary and scientific men with regard to the historical books of the Hebrew Scriptures which is reprehensible, and for which I have little respect.

They studiously avoid all mention of these documents, when if they had been discovered in the valley of the Euphrates or the Nile they would receive great attention. I do not recollect that the “Antiquity of Man” ever recognizes that the book of Genesis is in existence; and yet every one is perfectly conscious that the author has it in mind, and is writing at it all the time.

It is not considered dignified, nor exactly in good taste, to make such allusions.

I venture to violate this canon of letters. I have said in a plain way whatever seemed to me to bear on my subject,-treating Moses as I would treat Herodotus. It is impossible in this question of the antiquity of man,to ignore, or be indifferent to, the statements of the Pentateuch; and Englishmen and Americans do not in fact forget them.

Affectation in a scientific work is specially. I I out of place; such a work should be characterized by the most thorough candor and by no suppressed prejudices. If I have succeeded in establishing the very recent origin of the human race, the effect of the evidence reaches farther than the position of pre-historic archaeology: Darwin’s views; for, if, as I contend, primeval man commenced his career six or eight thousand years ago in a civilized condition in the temperate regions of the East, and there are no human traces behind these, the doctrine of evolution, so far as man is concerned, is at once negatived.

Even the man of Solutr,6, in Eastern France, the cotemporary of the mammoth, and who, as I have attempted to show, occupied that station only a few thousand years ago, had.


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PrunerBey, ” est constitue homme dans toute la force du terme,” -with regard to whom ” rien dans son physique n’indique un rapprochement avec les Simiens. Such a man —civilized in Egypt-uncivilized, but employing horses, making pottery, executing such drawings as that represented in our frontispiece, in Europe-appeared abruptly on the scene a few thousand years ago,-ten, if you choose. As the facts stand, I think Mr.

Darwin will find it a difficult matter to procure from the quaternary and tertiary deposits a sufficient number of earlier human.

I wish, in conclusion, to express the great obligations I have been under in the preparation of this volume to Prof. Edmund Andrews of the University of Chicago. He was kind enough in the beginning to read my manuscript, and to encourage me in its publication, and he has read the proof-sheets and corresponded with me as the work has been passing through the press. To him I am indebted for many important hints and much valuable information, which I have sometimes, but not always, recognized.

The Unity of the Human Race The Antiquity of Man The Antiquity of Man-continued The Fickleness of Science The Conflicts of Christianity The Megalithic Monuments and Tumuli Summing up with Regard to the Caves The River-Gravel of France and England The Peat of the Somme Valley The River-Gravel farther considered Farther Observations on the River-Gravel Result of the Foregoing Evidence Recent Changes in the Physical Geography of the Earth Stone, Bronze, and Iron The Ruins of Troy Farther Consideration of the Peat Mosses The Absence of the Palxeolithic Age in Egypt The Recent Date of the Glacial Age The Antiquity of Man in America The Thread of History.

Oppert on the Tower of Babel. The Cave-Men of Western Europe. We can follow the Roman history back to seven hundred and fifty years before Christ. And before the Romans were the Greeks. We can trace them back through Demosthenes, Thucydides, Herodotus, Homer. Solon was about B. Back of that we place the Trojan war about I B. But modern research has laid bare the Egyptian and Mesopotamian annals, and we know now more, perhaps, of the daily life of the old Memphian and Theban monarchies than we do of that of the Romans before the Punic wars.

Champollion and Young, followed by Layard, Rawlinson, Oppert, Brugsch, De Rouge, Lepsius, Mariette, have found the key to aji mysterious characters that were stamped on the Babylonian bricks or traced on the walls of the Egyptian tombs.

The long-sealed records of ancient India, of Phcenicia, of Palestine, Persia, Moab, have also been 2 We find ourselves face to face with the builders of the Pyramids and the Tower of Babel, with the hoary antiquity of the Vedas, vjene those primeval rovers of the sea whose traces, it is supposed, have been found even in America.

We can almost lay our hands upon Mizraim and Asshur and Nimrod, as they stand between the Ark and the opening drama of human history. Egyptian and Authorities differ as to’the precise chronology; but Babylonian B. A few hundred years earlier or later will not ahhi the main fact: The Chinese and the Hindoos like the Egyptians and the Babylonians claim a much greater antiquity; but by general consent it is now allowed that the Egyptian annals go back as far as any others, if not farther.

They all go back some two thousand or ahk thousand years before the Christian era. Primeval man We find all of these primeval people suddenly appearing civilized.

That was about four thousand six hundred years ago. Stuart Poole to about B. With regard lejs China, in the ley century before the Christian era it embraced only five ouit of the present eighteen districts; and there are no historical documents earlier than the sixth century B. No writings of any description, prior to those ascribed to Confucius; exist in China. This philosopher compiled a history of China in a book called the Shooking.

Subsequent to this, one of the Chinese emperors, Che-wang-tse by name, under the idea of commencing a new set of annals with his own reign, caused all the records of the empire to be destroyed. Sixty years afterwards, his successor attempted to repair the mischief which had been luca, and offered large rewards for the recovery leyss any of the lost annals.


The Shoo-king is said to have been recovered from an old man who had committed it to memory. Such is Chinese history prior to this date. But, such as it is, it does vieene claim to go back farther than B.

With regard to India, the annals of this country do not go back farther than the epoch of Alexander the Great. The Rig-veda, for which an antiquity of three thousand years before our era is claimed, belongs probably to the twelfth century B.

The rock-cut temples of India have also been deemed of immense antiquity; but it is now ascertained, from inscriptions and other data, that none of them are older than the second century B. The natives will tell you that they were erected by the Pandus B. I advancement; they have their science and their literature; the women are dressed in “brilliant scarlet,” and adorned with ” necklaces, bracelets, and anklets of blue and white glass beads;” the “government” is engaged in mining for copper and turquoise in the Sinaitic peninsula; “in short, the civilization represented is in every respect as high as that of any later period of the Egyptian monarchy, and the art is even higher.

In two rooms of the palace of Asshur-bani-pal at Nineveh, Mr. Layard discovered a mass of Assyrian grammatical literature. One of these documents proves to be a vast Cyclopedica of Assyrio-Babylonian Grammar. In the same ” Chamber of Records” he found an exceedingly rich collection of mathematical and astronomical works.

The Phcenicians, it is at least probable, crossed the Atlantic, and left their colonies in North and South America.

On examining it he found the letters to be pure Phcenician. These rash or unfortunate Canaanites-the patronymic which they have used to denominate themselves-left the port of Aziongaber now Akabaa port upon the Red Sea, lrys sailed for twelve novilunes lunar months along the land of Egypt-that is, Africa.

The number of vessels they had and the number of males and females composing the adventurous expedition are all set forth in a concise and seemingly elegant style, these particulars being placed intermediate between the invocation, some at the beginning and the others at the end of the inscription of the Alonim Valonuth,-that is, gods and goddesses, or sutperos superasgue, as is the Latin translation of those well-known Phoenician words.

The inscription is in eight lines of most beautiful Phcenician letters, but without separation of the words, without the vowel-points, and without quiescent letters,-three great obstacles to the interpretation, to overcome which a mere knowledge of Biblical Hebrew is insufficient. If we examine their religion, their language, their architecture, we find that they are related. The Egyptians certainly had no Stone Age; they Egypt.

Stone implements occur in Egypt, but there is no evidence that they are older than the metal implements which we know were employed to construct the Pyramids. And davud in Babylonia we find traces of iron and bronze from the very first, and, associated with them, implements of stone. There is not a particle of evidence that man in his earliest seats in the East was a savage.

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It is certain that the Egyptians, the Arabians, the Babylonians, the Aryans of India, set out as civilized races. The remark is, perhaps, true of the Chinese, and of the Scythians. In the beginning, among some of them, certain tribes may have followed a pastoral life; in the main the arts and the building of cities appear at once.

There is nothing back of this civilization, no graduated process from the savage state. Did they pass from the lacustrine or the cave state in a day?