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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In the absence of friction and other energy loss, the total mechanical energy has a constant value.

An undamped spring—mass system undergoes simple harmonic motion. This is a good approximation when the angle of the swing is small. Retrieved from ” https: In addition, other solutioms can be approximated by simple harmonic motion, including the motion of a simple pendulum as well as molecular vibration.

The linear motion can take various forms depending on the shape of the slot, but the basic yoke with a constant rotation speed produces a linear motion that is simple harmonic in form. The above equation is also valid in the case when an additional constant force is being applied on the mass, i.

At the equilibrium position, the net restoring force vanishes. This page was last edited on 29 Decemberat The motion is sinusoidal in time and demonstrates a single resonant frequency.

In the diagram, a simple harmonic oscillatorconsisting of a weight attached to one end of a spring, is shown. Thus simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion. In mechanics and physicssimple harmonic motion is a special type of periodic motion or oscillation motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to that of displacement.

Newtonian mechanics Small-angle approximation Rayleigh—Lorentz pendulum Isochronous Uniform circular motion Complex harmonic motion Damping Harmonic oscillator Pendulum mathematics Circle group String vibration. Simple harmonic motion is typified by solutionx motion of a mass on a spring when it is subject to the linear elastic cassidwy force given by Hooke’s Law. The following physical systems are some examples of simple harmonic oscillator.


In the solution, c 1 and c 2 are two constants determined by the analyytical conditions, and the origin is set to be the equilibrium position.

The other end of the spring is connected to a rigid support such as a wall. Solutionw the mass is displaced from its equilibrium position, it experiences a net restoring force.

A net restoring force then slows it down until its velocity reaches zero, whereupon it is accelerated back to the equilibrium position again.

Using the techniques of calculusthe velocity and acceleration as a function of time can be found:. The equation for describing mevhanics period. As long as the system has no energy loss, the mass continues to oscillate. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The motion of an undamped pendulum approximates to simple harmonic motion if the angle of oscillation is small.

The area enclosed depends on the amplitude and the maximum momentum. When the mass moves closer to the equilibrium position, the restoring force decreases. For simple harmonic motion to be an accurate model for a pendulum, the net force on the object at the end of the pendulum must be proportional to the displacement.

Simple harmonic motion can serve as a mathematical model for a variety of motions, such as the oscillation of a spring. As a result, it accelerates and starts going back to the equilibrium position.

Simple harmonic motion can be considered the one-dimensional projection of uniform circular motion. By definition, if a mass m is under SHM its acceleration is directly proportional to displacement. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Views Read Edit View history.

Physics – Intermediate Mechanics

Therefore it can be simply defined as the periodic motion of a body along a straight line, such that the acceleration is directed towards the center of the motion and also proportional to the displacement from that point.


These equations demonstrate that the simple harmonic motion is isochronous the period and frequency are independent of the amplitude and the initial phase of the motion. Therefore, the mass continues past the equilibrium position, compressing the spring.

If the system is left at rest at the equilibrium position then there is no net force acting on the mass.

In Newtonian mechanicsfor one-dimensional simple harmonic motion, the equation of motion, which is a second-order linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients, can be obtained by means of Newton’s 2nd law and Hooke’s law for a mass on a spring. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

However, if the mass is displaced from the equilibrium position, the spring exerts a restoring elastic force that obeys Hooke’s law. Simple harmonic motion provides a basis for the characterization of more complicated motions through the techniques of Fourier analysis.

The motion of a particle moving along a straight line with an acceleration whose direction is always towards a fixed point on the line and whose magnitude is proportional to the distance from the fixed point is called simple harmonic motion [SHM]. Note if the real space and phase space diagram are not co-linear, the phase space motion becomes elliptical.


A mass m attached to a spring of spring constant k exhibits simple harmonic motion in closed space. Solving the differential equation above produces a solution that is a sinusoidal function.

A Scotch yoke mechanism can ccassiday used to convert between rotational motion and linear reciprocating motion.